Demography is the scientific study of the population. The Ancient Greek words - dēmos (meaning: the people) and graphō (meaning: writing, description or measurement) make the English word - “Demography”. This reading can take into account a number of variables like - land area, gender, fertility rate etc. for different kinds of demographic outcomes.

It is a statistical analysis of the total human population including size, growth, movement, density, and composition. There are three major components in the study of demography that affect the data greatly. They are - 

Birth rates, death rates and migrating populations directly affect the existing inhabitants of any area. When the birth rates are on the spike but death and outward migration rates drop, the population density of a region or country increases.


For example, the birth rate in the United Kingdom in the year 2020 was 11.433 per 1000 people. UK saw a 0.48% decline in the birth rate from 2019. These calculations required statistical demographic data from previous years and the present so that they could be compared to calculate a number of rates.

Types of Demography

There are two major types of demography and they are -

  1. Formal (a statistical reading of the population, population density etc. which are static in nature)
  2. Social (a reading of various rates in the society like birth rate, death rate etc.)


Use of the Term in Sentences

  • The demographic data helps keep track of a country’s population and other growths with relation to it.
  • Looking at the social demographic stats of the USA entails a 15.9% hike in the age-adjusted mortality rate in the year 2020.


Webster Dictionary Meaning

1. Demography
- The study of races, as to births, marriages, mortality, health, etc.
Category: Sociology
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